US Army Corps of Engineers
Institute for Water Resources, Risk Management Center Website

Reference Center

Tolerable Risk Resources

Rationale Documents – Why Organizations Chose Their Tolerable Risk Guidelines

Tolerable Risk References

Institute for Water Resources (IWR) Guidelines
Australian Guidelines
Journal Articles 
  • Farmer, F.R. Reactor Safety and Siting: A Proposed Risk Criterion.  Nuclear Safety, Vol. 8, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1967). pp. 539-548. (first F-N Chart)
  • Okrent, D., Dunster, H.J., and Van Reijen, G. Industrial Risks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 376, No. 1764 (Apr. 30, 1981). pp. 133-149 (Tolerable risk limit comparison)
  • Okrent, D. The Safety Goals of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Science, New Series, Vol. 236, No. 4799 (Apr. 17, 1987). pp. 296-300 (U.S. tolerable risk limits for nuclear catastrophes)
  • Higson, D.J., Nuclear Safety Assessment Criteria.  Nuclear Safety, Vol. 31, No. 2 (April-June 1990). pp.173-186. (Australian tolerable risk limits)
  • United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive. The Tolerability of Risk from Nuclear Power Stations. (1992). (The risk triangle)
  • Ball, D.J., and Floyd, P.J. Societal Risks, Report prepared for UK Health and Safety Executive. (1998). (Summary of societal considerations)
  • Kaplan, S., and Garrick, B.J. On the Quantitative Definition of Risk. Risk Analysis. (1981). pp. 11-27. (Defines Risk)
  • Rasmussen, N. C., et al. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. WASH-1400 (NUREG-75/014). Federal Government of the United States, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (October 1975). (First comparison of F-N hazards) 
  • Dezfuli, H., Stamatelatos, M., Maggio, G., Everett, C., and Youngblood, R., NASA Risk-Informed Decision-Making Handbook. Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, NASA Headquarters, (2010).